Velocity at a Point using a Pitot Tube
A combination of piezometer and pitot tube can be used to obtain the velocity at a specific point. Static pressure can be measured using a piezometer. The Pitot tube, as shown in the figure, can be used to measure the stagnation pressure. Stagnation pressure is the pressure when the flow has a stagnation velocity (i.e., V = 0). By perfectly aligning the Pitot tube with the flow, the flow will come to a stop at the tip of the Pitot tube, hence providing the stagnation pressure measurement.
where p1 and p2 are known from the height of the fluid column in the piezometer and Pitot tube, respectively.
Energy and Hydraulic Grade Lines
The energy grade line (EGL) and the hydraulic grade line (HGL) provide a graphical interpretation of Bernoulli's equation. The EGL represents the total head available with respect to a chosen datum (i.e., a reference line, as shown in the figure). The EGL is a constant for frictionless flow where no work or heat is associated with the process. On the other hand, the HGL is the sum of static pressure and elevation head.
Sometimes, this is also referred as the piezometric head and is the height a fluid column would rise in a piezometer. For example, the EGL and HGL for frictionless flow in a duct are shown in the figure.