Tuesday, January 27, 2009

Petroleum processing and refining

Petroleum processing and refining

The separation of petroleum into fractions and the treating of these fractions to yield marketable products. Petroleum is a mixture of gaseous, liquid, and solid hydrocarbon compounds that occurs in sedimentary rock deposits throughout the world. In the crude state, petroleum has little value but, when refined, it provides liquid fuels (gasoline, diesel fuel, aviation fuel), solvents, heating oil, lubricants, and the distillation residuum asphalt, which is used for highway surfaces and roofing materials. See also: Petroleum; Petroleum products

Crude petroleum (oil) is a mixture of compounds with different boiling temperatures that can be separated into a variety of fractions (Table 1). Since there is a wide variation in the composition of crude petroleum, the proportions in which the different fractions occur vary with origin. Some crude oils have higher proportions of lower-boiling components, while others have higher proportions of residuum (asphaltic components).

Petroleum processing and refining involves a series of steps by which the original crude oil is converted into products with desired qualities in the amounts dictated by the market. In fact, a refinery is essentially a group of manufacturing plants that vary in number with the variety of products in the mix. Refinery processes must be selected and products manufactured to give a balanced operation; that is, crude oil must be converted into products according to the demand for each. For example, the manufacture of products from the lower-boiling portion of petroleum automatically produces a certain amount of higher-boiling components. If the latter cannot be sold as, say, heavy fuel oil, these products will accumulate until refinery storage facilities are full. To prevent such a situation, the refinery must be flexible and able to change operations as needed. This usually means more processes, such as thermal processes to change excess heavy fuel oil into gasoline with coke as the residual product, or vacuum distillation processes to separate heavy oil into lubricating oil stocks and asphalt.

Early refineries (70 years ago) were predominantly distillation units with, perhaps, ancillary units to remove objectionable odors from the various product streams. The refinery of today (Fig. 1), the result of major evolutionary trends, is a highly complex operation. Most of the evolutionary adjustments to refineries have occurred since 1940. In the petroleum industry, as in many other industries, supply and demand are key factors in efficient and economic operation. Innovation is also key.

Fig. 1 Schematic of a petroleum refinery showing the various units. (After J. G. Speight, ed., The Chemistry and Technology of Petroleum, 3d ed., Marcel Dekker, New York, 1999)

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11 komentar:

salam and good days

im a final year student at fkk, utm. i have been in your class for separation laboratory in 2009 if im not mistaken.for this semester, my group were ask to design sustainable petroleum refinery plant for pertamina at balik papan. im responsible to design crude distillation unit for the refinery and i was found one design that using indirect distillaton known as progressive distilation unit which is like two series of distillation column where the journaist claim hat it can save a lot of utilities cost. so the problem here is, while doing mass balance and energy balance, i got confused by parameter such as boiling point for exact fraction, API, and so on,.im trying to use mccabe method, it only for binary components and equimolar. can u explain to me

thanks
ahmad nasaie
anasaie2@yahoo.com

We Can supply Aviation Kerosene,Jet fuel (JP 54-A1,5), Diesel (Gas Oil) and Fuel Oil D2, D6,ETC in FOB/Rotterdam only, serious buyer should contact or if you have serious buyers my seller is ready to close this deal fast contact us below:now base email us (neftegazagent@yandex.ru)

PRODUCT AVAILABLE IN ROTTERDAM/ CI DIP AND PAY IN SELLER EX-SHORE TANK.

Russia D2 50,000-150,000 Metric Tons FOB Rotterdam Port.

JP54 5000,000 Barrels per Month FOB Rotterdam.

JA1 Jet Fuel 10,000,000 Barrels FOB Rotterdam.

D6 Virgin Fuel Oil 800,000,000 Gallon FOB Rotterdam.

E-mail: neftegazagent@yandex.ru
E: neftegazagent@mail.ru
E: neftegazagent@yahoo.com

Best Regards
(Mr.) Vladislav Yakov
Skype: neftegazagent

Thank You

AVAILABLE PETROLEUM PRODUCTS ON FOB & CIF BASIS

WE HAVE AVAILABLE PETROLEUM PRODUCTS FROM RELIABLE REFINERY IN RUSSIAN FEDERATION WITH BEST PRICE AND QUALITY.
BELOW PRODUCT ARE AVAILABLE WITH BEST OFFERS - FOB CI DIP AND PAY FOB PRODUCTS AVAILABLE

JP54: Quantity: 500,000-2,000,000 Barrels
D2: Quantity: 50,000-150,000 Metric Tons
D6 Virgin: Quantity: 400,000,000-800,000,000 Gallon

SERIOUS BUYERS PLEASE CONTACT US FOR MORE DETAILS WITH YOUR SPECIFIC REQUIREMENTS SO AS TO ENABLE US PROVIDE YOU WITH OUR WORKABLE

PROCEDURE.
Sincerely.

Maksim Yaroslav (Mr.)
EMAIL: neftegazconsultant@yandex.ru
EMAIL: neftegazconsultant@mail.ru
Skype: neftegazconsultant
TEL: +7 9265036551
=======================

Oilgaztreyd LLC has been in business of production, marketing and exporting of all petroleum and petrochemical products for the past 15 years. We have been an established and popular company with an excellent track record for the best customer satisfaction. We have never compromised on the quality and the services provided to the customer. We believe in keeping the customers happy and providing them with products at a very competent price. We have an excellent staffs who will guide you with their best ideas by keeping in constant touch with your company and informing about the market trends. We are also interested to establish a mutual business relationship with buyers, facilitators and resellers all over the world with basic aim of supplying them with our products such as follow D2, jetFuel A1,JP54,Mazut M100,D6,Base Oil and Bitumen.

Also we work with other foreign partnered refineries in allocation production.

Regards,
Julian Alessandov
Email:oilandgaztreyd@mail.ru
Email:oilandgaztrey@yandex.ru

New Arrival
We have available allocation for the supply of oil and gas products. D2,D6,Jp54,Jet A1, etc. on Ci Dip And Pay FOB Rotterdam, Products are of Russian Origin. Let me know if you have available buyer to close this deal and contact us.

Regards

Igor Abramovich (Mr)
email: info.russiatrading@mail.ru
skype: info.russiatrading@mail.ru

We Can supply Aviation Kerosene,Jet fuel (JP 54-A1,5), Diesel (Gas Oil) and Fuel Oil D2, D6,ETC in FOB/Rotterdam only, serious buyer should contact or if you have serious buyers my seller is ready to close this deal fast contact us below:now base email us (neftegazagent@yandex.ru)

PRODUCT AVAILABLE IN ROTTERDAM/ CI DIP AND PAY IN SELLER EX-SHORE TANK.

Russia D2 50,000-150,000 Metric Tons FOB Rotterdam Port.

JP54 5000,000 Barrels per Month FOB Rotterdam.

JA1 Jet Fuel 10,000,000 Barrels FOB Rotterdam.

D6 Virgin Fuel Oil 800,000,000 Gallon FOB Rotterdam.

E-mail: neftegazagent@yandex.ru
E: neftegazagent@mail.ru
E: neftegazagent@yahoo.com

Best Regards
(Mr.) Vladislav Yakov
Skype: neftegazagent

Thank You

JP54 - D6 - JET A1 - D2 AVAILABLE ON CI DIP AND PAY FOB ROTTERDAM

WE HAVE AVAILABLE PETROLEUM PRODUCTS FROM RELIABLE REFINERY IN RUSSIAN FEDERATION WITH BEST AND QUALITY PRICE.
BELOW PRODUCT ARE AVAILABLE WITH BEST OFFERS - FOB CI DIP AND PAY ROTTERDAM

JP54: Quantity: 500,000-2,000,000 Barrels
JetA1: Quantity: 500,000-2,000,000 Barrels
D2: Quantity: 50,000-150,000 Metric Tons
D6 Virgin: Quantity: 400,000,000-800,000,000 Gallon

SERIOUS BUYERS PLEASE CONTACT US FOR MORE DETAILS WITH YOUR REQUIRED

Maksim Yaroslav (Mr.)
EMAIL: neftegazconsultant@yandex.ru
EMAIL: neftegazconsultant@mail.ru
Skype: neftegazconsultant
TEL: +7 9265036551

JP54 - D6 - JET A1 - D2 AVAILABLE ON CI DIP AND PAY FOB ROTTERDAM

WE HAVE AVAILABLE PETROLEUM PRODUCTS FROM RELIABLE REFINERY IN RUSSIAN FEDERATION WITH BEST AND QUALITY PRICE.
BELOW PRODUCT ARE AVAILABLE WITH BEST OFFERS - FOB CI DIP AND PAY ROTTERDAM

JP54: Quantity: 500,000-2,000,000 Barrels
JetA1: Quantity: 500,000-2,000,000 Barrels
D2: Quantity: 50,000-150,000 Metric Tons
D6 Virgin: Quantity: 400,000,000-800,000,000 Gallon

SERIOUS BUYERS PLEASE CONTACT US FOR MORE DETAILS WITH YOUR REQUIRED

Maksim Yaroslav (Mr.)
EMAIL: neftegazconsultant@yandex.ru
EMAIL: neftegazconsultant@mail.ru
Skype: neftegazconsultant
TEL: +7 9265036551

Dear Buyer / Buyer mandate
We currently have JETFUEL, A1, JP54, D2, D6, Available On FOB Rotterdam / Hosuton with good and workable procedure, whereby the buyer will dip in seller's tank for proof of product.
Kindly Contact us via ( russianoilandgastradingllc@bk.ru ) for SCO.

Sincerely,
Mrs Alesya Balashova
Email: russianoilandgastradingllc@yandex.ru
Email: russianoilandgastradingllc@bk.ru
Skype: russianoilandgastradingllc

We at ALIMOV-PETROLEUM are mandates and agent to reputable refineries in the Russian federation.For all petroleum products. Aviation Kerosene,Jet fuel (JP 54-JET,A1,5), Diesel (Gas Oil) and Fuel Oil D2, D6,spot for FOB Rotterdam,

We carry out every mandatory due diligence, and bring only reliable and real credible buyers and buyer's mandate to our supplier in Russian federation, to work with you and your entity with the Refinery's terms and procedure.

Looking forward to closing transactions with you now or in the future.

Contact
ALIMOV PETROLEUM
Alimov Rafais Shabiyevich
Email: alimov.petroleum@bk.ru
Skype: alimov.petroleum

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Regards
Management

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